The Bussard collector, also known as a Bussard ramscoop or ramscoop, is a device usually attached to the forward end of a warp nacelle.
The basic principles behind the Starfleet Bussard collector were devised by Earth physicist Robert Bussard in the 1960s, after whom the device is named. Its main function is to collect interstellar hydrogen atoms for fuel replenishment. The device consists of a set of coils which generate a magnetic field. Collected gasses are compressed and stored into holding tanks.
All Federation starships are equipped with Bussard collectors where they are positioned in the best line of sight to collect particles. Collection works best in regions where particle density is high like solar systems or nebula.
The Bussard collector normally collects hydrogen atoms for fuel replenishment but can be reconfigured to collect other gasses like sirilium, plasma particles and deuterium. The design of the collector is not optimal; it can be enhanced by 23%.
A Bussard collector can also be reconfigured to expel gasses or plasma.